The area covered by today’s Czerwonak Commune was not a single administrative unit before the interwar period. The villages located in the area were private property (partially of the bishops of Poznań) during the partitions of Poland they were in the East Poznań poviat and during the interwar period – Poznań poviat.
Czerwonak Commune is a relatively new administrative unit. It was created in the years 1931-1932 from 12 villages located to the north of Poznań. The first village head was the owner of the mill, Franciszek Sausz. Through the years the administrative changes resulted in several modifications of the Czerwonak Commune area, finally ending with it consisting of 17 villages: Annowo, Bolechowo, Bolechowo Osiedle, Bolechówko, Czerwonak, Dębogóra, Kicin, Kliny, Koziegłowy, Ludwikowo, Mielno, Miękowo, Owińska, Potasze, Promnice, Szlachcin and Trzaskowo – with over 27 000 people.
Within the area of Czerwonak Commune there are about 170 archaeological sites, mostly known from surface examination and as such not thoroughly researched. 26 of those have been identified as high value sites and 31 as medium value.
The oldest signs of settlements come from the ending phase of the older stone age – the Palaeolithic. A site from this time frame exists in Promnice. The flint tools found there represent the so called Sviderian culture. The next epoch – the Mesolithic (8000-4500 B.C.) is represented by the flint relics from Bolechowo and Promnice. In the next one, the Neolithic (4500-1800 B.C.) the area was sporadically inhabited by the representatives of two archaeological cultures: the funnel beaker culture and the globular amphora culture. The funnel beaker culture sites appear in Bolechowo, Czerwonak, Dębogóra, Kicin, Koziegłowy, Miękowo, Owińska and Promnice. The globular amphora culture is represented in Koziegłowy. A major growth of settlements came with the bronze age and early iron age, the times of so called Lusatian culture (1300-400 B.C.). During that time all the most attractive settlement locations were occupied, especially the river valleys. The burial grounds in Owińska (two) and Bolechów date back to that time. Additionally, sites of that culture appear in Bolechów, Czerwonak, Dębogóra, Kicin, Koziegłowy, Miękówek, Milno, Owińska and Promnice. In the next age, the times of the Pomeranian culture the area was still intensively populated. It left, among other sites, the burial grounds in Koziegłowy and Owińska. The settlement from the times of the Roman influence (first centuries A.D.) is also well represented. It was the time of intensified agriculture. It left remains of settlements in Bolechów, Dębogóra, Kicin, where there is a burial ground from that age, Owińskie and Promnice. The most represented is the settlement from the medieval. In those times it was no longer limited to river valleys and spread over the heights as well. It was then that the current layout of villages started forming, hence there are signs of medieval settlement in most villages. Two treasures composed of coins and silver jewerly from Koziegłowy and Owińska come from that time.
The village was first a property of the Cistercian sisters and then the von Treskow family. The Cistercians had their second house on the currently swampy grounds near one of the major communication routes. Unfortunately, the remains were pulled down by the Germans during WWII. In the middle of the XIX century the von Treskow family built a small hunting manor in the area, of which a XIX century collection of hunting trophies still remains. The manor itself has been converted into Annowo forester’s house, assigned to the Łopuchówko Forest Division.
The name of the village comes from the name Bolech and in the medieval documents it appears as Bolechow, Bolechow Mayus. A name Bolechowo Wielkie (Great Bolechowo) was also in use, as a contrast to Bolechowo Małe (Little Bolechowo) mentioned in the documents from 1429, located to the south of the village and since XVII century called Bolechówko. The first mention of Bolechowo comes from 1252 when the village found itself among others given to the monastery of the Cistercian sisters in Owińska. After the liquidation of the monastery the Prussian authorities gave the lands to a Berlin fancy good merchant von Treskow (privilege of 24.01.1797) In 1873 Bolechowo along with the Szlachcin manor farm became the property of Zygmunt Szułdrzyński from Lubasz and in 1890 – his son Tadeusz, one of the most influential land owners in Great Poland. During the Second Republic Bolechowo was surrounded by German estates: von Treskow in Owińska and Winterfeld’s in Przebudowa. After WWII Bolechowo became a strong centre of industry.
Bolechówko was created in XIX century through enfranchisement of the peasants subservient to the Owińska estate of the von Treskow family. Presently the village has lost its agricultural character, its fields replaced by detached housing stretching along its two main roads.
Bolechowo – Osiedle
It is the youngest dwelling of Czerwonak Commune, created by separation from Bolochowo in the previous century. Before that it was a housing development mostly inhabited by the workers from the nearby factories, „Stomil” among others.
The origins of the name of the village are not clear. Most probably the name comes from Polish cochineal – an insect bred on the slopes of Dziewicza Góra by the local Cistercian sisters, used in production of crimson dye. According to another theory the name comes from the Red Mill that used to be located in the valley of the Warta. The village was first mentioned in 1411 as Czirwony Mlin. In 1545 the parish priest of the Poznań cathedral brought a paper maker to Czerwonak, tasking him with converting the old mill into a paper mill. Back then it was one of two paper mills existing in Great Poland. In 1860 the process of enfranchisement of the Czerwonak peasants finished with 12 men gaining ownership of their land. 20 years later the village had 21 houses and 224 people. In 1908 a railway connecting Poznań, Skoki and Wągrowiec was opened, which started industrial development of the area and contributed to Czerwonak being called the most industrialized village in Poland. The year 1927 saw Czerwonak return to its paper industry traditions when brothers Ferdynand and Christian Queck started building a new paper mill. In the thirties a Primary School and Voluntary Fire Department were created, while the „Sokół” Gymnastics Association built a club house on the lands donated by Józef Krauze, then village head of Czerwonak. After the start of WWII on September 1st 1939 the village head of Czerwonak formed a Citizens Guard which he led himself in a battle against a German unit entering Murowana Goślina. During the Nazi occupation (1941-1945) Czerwonak was renamed Rotental. In 1955 a huge granary was built and in the seventies it was expanded by a set of reinforced concrete silos, also adapted to receiving grain from river barges. An important year for Czerwonak culture came in 1964 when a new Commune Library was opened, continuing the traditions of its predecessors. In the years 1985-87 a ”40 years of PRL” housing complex was built.
The first written mention of this village comes from 1335. It belonged to the Cistercian sisters. Nowadays it is a part of Kliny solectwo.
The name probably comes from a tuft of hair. In the medieval the village also appeared as Kycin, Kyczyna and Kiczyn. The first mention of the village appears in a paper by bishop Jan Doliwa from 1316. Until the end of XVIII Kicin belonged to Poznań chapter. The local church was probably founded in XII century but the first mention appears in 1405. At the end of the Xv century the village had 30 fields and 3 inns. In 1780 socage was introduced in the local estates. On the map from 1798 the village appears as irregular with separate farmers’ buildings and infrastructure. Close to it was a manor and the manor farm. In 1880 Kicin had 27 houses and 368 people, it had both a Catholic and a Lutheran primary school, a distillery and a dairy farm and a manor farm belonging to the parish. A very important year for the village came in 1834, when its owner Adolf von Lutzow introduced an act of enfranchisement for the farmers. During WWII there was a Nazi labour camp for people of Jewish descent in Kicin, supplying workforce for the construction of a road to Kliny. In 1954 the construction of Kicin housing estate started near the forest and in 1959 the Kicin Machinery Ring started the mechanization of the country, buying tractors and farming machines as the first in the voivodship.
The first note of Kliny comes from 1601. It was an olęder settlement. In 1880 it was 584 ha village inhabited by 145 people and the owner was Kornbach Junior. Before the war the village was called Lindengarten (”linden garden”).
The name of the village is related to several legends. One of them claims that the name comes from goat heads on pikes, a symbol of a local tribe. Other speaks of a great flood which supposedly took away a flock of goats. It is also possible that the name comes from the local hills resembling goat heads. In the medieval the village was also called: Kozeglowi, Koszeglovi, Cozyeglowe. The first sources talking about Koziegłowy come from 1296, when the Kalisz voivod gave the village to the Poznań chapter. The people of the village were not meek individuals; the vague marking of the village boarders resulted in neighbours taking away their crops and they often repaid them in kind. The XVIII and XIX centuries were the times of olęder settlements. In the area of Koziegłowy there were also settlements by ”Bamber” German families, quickly assimilated. In 1883 a primary school was opened at Gdańska street for children of Koziegłowy and Czerwonak. At that time the village had a population of 169. During the interwar period there existed a 200 ha estate of Antoni Madziak. During the Nazi occupation Koziegłowy was renamed Ziegenhagen. It the area of the current Karolin housing estate military storehouses and ammo dumps were built – they were all blown up by the Red Army in 1945.
The first mention of the village comes from 1388.
The name of the village probably comes from an old Polish word owień, which meant a male lamb. The first mention of the village (referred to as Ovensco) comes from 1249 and for many years it also appeared under the name Owieńska. In the years 1242-1252 brothers Przemysł Ist and Bolesław the Pious, dukes of Great Poland funded a monastery for the Cistercian sisters brought in from Trzebnica. It is assumed that the monastery is the reason for the nearby mountain being called Góra Dziewicza, initially Dziewcza, on which a small hermitage was built for troublesome nuns.
In 1793 Great Poland became a part of Prussia and in 1797 the lands of the Cistercians were sold to a Berlin banker Siegmund Otton von Treskow. In 1834 the Prussian authorities decided to create a psychiatric hospital in the old monastery. It was opened 4 years later and expanded in the following years. In autumn 1939 the Nazis murdered all the inmates of the Owińska psychiatric hospital. Over 1000 patients, including 78 children were shot in the forest of Rożnowice near Oborniki while the women were gassed to death in Fortress VII in Poznań. After WWII the abandoned former monastery was turned into what would later become a Special Purpose School for Vision-Impaired Children.
Taking over the monastery lands in Owińska started the career of the Brandenburg family of von Treskow. They lived in Owińska until 1945. In the years 1804-1806 a classical palace was built there; it remains to this day. After WWII it housed a school and a kindergarten. Later the palace went into the hands of a private owner, who allowed it to fall into disrepair. Since 2002 the palace belongs to the Czerwonak Commune.
Like many villages in the Grand Duchy of Poznań Potasze was created as the result of the regulating act, otherwise known as enfranchisement act of 1823, which demanded that large land owners gave the lands to peasants for compensation. In the place of the old village there remained a manor farm belonging to the old owner while the households being enfranchised were moved to a new spot. This created a new village in the form or a regular, modern, linear colony. One such village is Potasze, created in 1835 to the east of the existing village of Owińska. To learn about the origins of the village name we must go back in time to the medieval, when the aforementioned Cistercian sisters employed six potash makers in Owińska. Potash is an old name for potassium carbonate, used in producing ceramic items, paints, beer and even pastries. It was made of ash from the hard wood of broad-leaved trees, most commonly oak, beech and birch. To create potash the wood was piled inside a hole and covered with earth and twigs, so called charcoal pile, then set to burn slowly, allowing the precious ash to gather at the bottom. Next the ash was leached with water in huge pots and then condensed the solution by slowly evaporating water until the final dry product was created. The places where potash was made were referred to as potashnie (asheries) and the people who worked them potażnik, ptasznik or potasz. The Cistercians earned money from potash by sending it by carts to Toruń where it was used as a cultivator when baking gingerbread. The carts probably started their journey at the location of the current village of Potasze.
Szlachęcin, as part of the Bolechowo estate in XVIII century belonged to Zygmunt Otton von Treskow and then to Stribler Rosenthal. From 1873 the owner of the village was Zygmunt Szułdrzyński from Lubasza and in 1900 it was inherited by dr Tadeusz Szułdrzyński, who in turn sold it about 1926 to Franciszek Czechowski. In 1943 Szlachęcin became the property of the 3rd Reich and after the war – Treasury of the State. The village contains an estate farm built between XIX and XX century. The current owner of the farm is State-owned Farms Conglomerate in Owińska and the user is Trzaskowo Farm.
Trzaskowo, then called Ottowo or Ottówek was a part of Bolecho estate belonging to the Cistercian sisters. From 1787 the village was a property of Zygmunt Otton von Treskow, which resulted in it getting renamed Tresków. According to remaining documents, in 1873 Zygmunt Szułdrzyński from Lubasz bought the village from Stribler Rosenthal, and about 1900 it was inherited by Tadeusz Szułdrzyński. In 1926 Trzaskowo became a property of Stanisław and Józef Krzyżański. Like other villages in 1943 the village was taken over by the 3rd Reich and after 1945 by the Treasury of the State. After the war the estate farm in the village became a property of State-owned Farms Conglomerate in Owińskie with Trzaskowo Farm no. 2 as its user.
1250 – first mention of the village Owińska
1252 – Cistercian sisters brought to Owińska
1252 – first mention of the village Bolechowo
1296 – first mention of the village Koziegłowy
1316 – first mention of the village Kicin
1335 – first mention of the village Debogóra
1388 – first mention of the village Miękowo
1405 – first mention of St. Nicholas’ church in Owińska
1405 – first church in Kicin
1411 – first mention of the mill in Czerwonak
1454 – founding of the paper mill in Czerwonak
1574 – building of St. Nicholas’ church in Owińska
circa 1700 – construction of Cistercian monastery in Owińska begins
1720-28 – construction of the monastery church in Owińska
1720 (March 28) – great fire in Cistercian church and monastery complex in Owińska
1731 – hallowing of the new Cistercian church and monastery
1749-51 – construction of a wooden church in Kicin
1752 – hallowing of Saint Joseph Husband of Mary church in Kicin
1773 – modifications of the monastery in Owińska
1780 – introduction of socage in Kicin area
1781 – mention of Czerwonczyn olęder settlement (today, eastern Czerwonak)
1797 – Prussian government gives Dziewicza Góra to Otton von Treskow
1804-06 – construction of Treskow palace in Owińska
1806 – visit of the Cistercian monastery by emperor Napoleon I
1831-32 – epidemic of cholera in Czerwonak area
1834 – enfranchisement of peasants in Kicin
1835 – creation of Potasze village
1838 – opening of a psychiatric hospital in the old monastery in Owińska
1848, 1852, 1866 – great epidemics of cholera in Czerwonak
1860 – the enfranchisement of peasants in Czerwonak is completed
1867 (May 26th) – founding of Land Owner and Agriculture Circle for Kicin and Wierzenica by August Cieszkowski and Teodor Dembiński
1873 – takeover of Bolechów by Zygmunt Szułdrzyński
1883 – opening of a primary school in Koziegłowy
1890 – takeover of an estate in Bolechowo by Tadeusz Szułdrzyński
1891 – founding of the parish Agriculture Circle in Owińska
1896 – building of a presbytery in Kicin
1905-07 – opening of a Poznań – Bydgoszcz railway
1908 – building of an evangelic school in Kicin
1910 – building of a manor in Trzaskowo and new psychiatric hospital buildings in Owińska
1918-39 – building of a steam –powered mill, an inn, a bakery, a colonial shop a restaurant and a beer house in Czerwonak
1923 – opening of a wire and hemp rope factory in Czerwonak
1924 – fire of the Dziewicza Góra lumber mill
1927 – the beginning of construction of a paper mill in Czerwonak by brothers Ferdynand and Christian Queck
1928 – construction of a roof felt factory in Czerwonak
1931-32 – building of a primary school in Czerwonak
1931-32 – creation of Czerwonak Commune covering 12 villages and opening of the primary school
1932 – creation of Czerwonak Volunteer Fire Department and a ”nest” of the ”Sokół” Gymnastics Association; opening of the association house, fire of the roof felt factory
1932-33 – creation of a circle of National Socialist Party in Kicin
1934 – founding of Karol Marcinkowski scout troop in Czerwonak
1936 – creation of a Polish Socialist Party cell in Czerwonak
1937 – creation of house for the poor in Czerwonak and creation of workers’ allotment garden
1938 – building of a fire station in Czerwonak
1939 – creation of citizens guard in Czerwonak; in October/December, extermination of patients of Owińska psychiatric hospital
1943-45 – existence of a concentration camp in Owińska and a small labour camp for Jews in Kicin
1945 (January 22nd) – arrival of the Red Army to Czerwonak
1945 (January 24th) – takeover of Owińska by the Red Army
1945 – creation of Czerwonak Commune with 21 villages and opening of a new school in Czerwonak
1946 – creation of a kindergarten in Czerwonak; founding of a People’s Sports Team in Kicin and a ”Jutrzenka” football club in Czerwonak; building of a wooden church in Czerwonak; founding of a Blind People’s Unit of Poznań Voivodship Self Government Association in Owińska
1947 – opening of a hospital in Miękówek; founding of a Polish People’s Party circle in Kicin
1948 (March 5th) – opening of Commune Public Library in Czerwonak; opening of a Youth Detention Unit in Owińska
1949 – founding of a United People’s Party circle in Czerwonak
1950-55 – creation of a ”Stomil” rubber products factory in Bolechowo
1950 – renaming of the Blind People’s Unit in Owińska to State-owned Unit for Vision Impaired Children
1951 – nationalization of Tadeusz Domaradzki’s lumber mill
1952 – creation of energy production repair depot in Czerwonak; opening of a new school in Kicin
1953 – electrification of Kicin
1954 – creation of a Residential Medical Care Facility in Owińska
1955-56 – creation of a granary in Czerwonak
1955 – decision to create a gardening conglomerate in Owińska
1957 – creation of a gardening-oriented State Agricultural Farm in Owińska
1959 (July 5th) – founding of a Machinery Ring for Czerwonak and Koziegłowy
1960 – beginning of construction of Zdroje housing area in Czerwonak
1960-61 – building of the 2nd Primary School in Czerwonak (currently a kindergarten)
1964 (May 10th) – opening of a Communal Library in Czerwonak; opening of ”Warta” cinema in the Czerwonak club-room
1964 – creation of a Society of Fighters for Freedom and Democracy of the Communal National Council
1967 – building of new blocks at Okrężna street in Czerwonak; opening of a new Poznań – Kicin – Mielno road
1969 – fusion of Owińska and Czerwonak troops; opening of a Modern Housewife Circle with household equipment rental in Czerwonak
1970 – sewage system created in the commune; unveiling of a monument to soldiers of the 2nd Polish Army at Owińska cemetery
1971 – expansion of the granary; opening of a bar and cafe ”Słoneczna” in Czerwonak; fire of the wooden church in Czerwonak
1973-79 – construction of a new Virgin Mary’s Immaculate Heart church in Czerwonak
1973 – founding of Czerwonak commune
1974-85 – construction of Central Sewage Treatment Plant in Koziegłowy
1974 – opening of ”Karolin” power plant; opening of a new kindergarten in Czerwonak, adaptation of the ”Warta” cinema into a new seat for the Commune Committee for the Polish United Workers’ Party
1976 – choosing of Józef Wybicki as the patron of Commune School in Czerwonak
1976-79 – building of the first 240 flats in Karolin housing
1977-80 – building of poultry processing plant in Koziegłowy
1979-88 – building of a Pressa pressed products factory in Bolechowo
1981-89 – building of St. Albert’s church in Koziegłowy
1982 – beginning of construction of Osiedle Leśne housing in Koziegłowy
1983 – opening of a train station Poznań Karolin on the Poznań – Wągrowiec train route
1984-86 – construction of ”40 years of PRL” housing in Czerwonak
1985 – beginning of construction of a dairy in Koziegłowy and a housing estate in Koziegłowy; unveiling of a monument to 9 village citizens killed 16.02.1945 in a fight against Germans
1989 – creation of a football youth club in Owińska (from April 1st this year „Błękitni” Sports Club in Owińska)
1990 – opening of a Commune Cultural Center ”Sokół” in Czerwonak
1991 – creation of bus communication in Czerwonak Commune; Opening of Dezydery Błachowski Secondary School in Bolochowo; creation of a „Sons of the Regiment” School for Vision Impaired Children in Owińska
1991 – founding of PPUH Guma Bolechowo Sp. z o.o. in Bolechowo; building of gas lines in Owińska
1996 – creation of bus factory ”Solaris Bus & Coach”; unveiling of a plaque commemorating the psychiatric hospital patients murdered in autumn 1939
1997 – opening of a water installations, sewage and gas piping elements factory of the Austria ”Hawle” company in Koziegłowy; forming of a Vox-Artis Foundation – Promotion of Modern Art in Czerwonak
1998 – creation of Czerwonak Social Building Society Limited
2000 – beginning of Owiplant Limited Gardening Company; unveiling of a plaque commemorating the victims of Katyń massacre
2001 – opening of the Central Sewage Treatment Plant in Koziegłowy; founding of a St. Mary of Fatima parish in Koziegłowy
2002 – takeover of the old von Treskow palace in Owińska by Czerwonak Commune
2003 – unveiling a boulder in Koziegłowy with a plaque commemorating general Stanisław Taczak, the first commander of Wielkopolskie Uprising 1918-19; forming a Physical Culture Development Center ”Akwen” in Czerwonak; introduction of Czerwonak forest division into Łopuchówko forest division; official opening of Koziegłowy swimming pool;
2005 – unveiling of a plaque commemorating the Defenders of Eastern Borderlands of the 2nd Republic
2006 – opening of a climbing wall in Czerwonak