The gmina, or local community, of Czerwonak is located in the Wielkopolskie province within the Wielkopolska Lowland. On the south side it is bordered by the city of Poznan, on the west by the gmina of Suchy Las, on the north by the gmina of Murowana Goślina, and on the east by the gminas of Pobiedziska and Swarzędz. The western boundary is marked by the River Warta, and the eastern boundary by the woodlands of the Zielonka Forest.



Natural topography


The gmina owes its diversified landscape to the effects of the Scandinavian ice sheet and the last glacial period, the so-called Baltic glaciation, which left a memento in the form of the latitudinal range of hills known as the Środkowopoznańska terminal moraine. A hilly landscape with high altitudes and morphological diversification is predominant in this area, from the valley of the River Warta, where the river bed is at about 45 meters above sea level, to the terminal moraine hill zone at a height of about 130 meters above sea level. The highest elevation is Dziewicza Góra, at 143 meters above sea level.



The predominant part of the gmina is situated on an outwash plain that occurs on both sides of the range of moraine hills. These hills, and in part the outwash as well, are well forested. There is a flat moraine upland covering a small area in the north, near Trzaskowo, at an elevation of 90-100 m above sea level, and a flat moraine upland near the village of Kliny (around 100 m above sea level). Smaller valleys are also present on the edge of the upland along the valley of the River Warta.




List of land types in the Czerwonak gmina

Types of land

Registered area

Agricultural land


Woodlands and forested areas


Urban or built-up land




Unused land


Other land





Soil and mineral resources


Most of the gmina is situated on a rolling ground moraine upland, made of brown till of great thickness. The remaining geological formations are sands of glaciofluvial origin, which can be found in the vicinity of watercourses and the River Warta, and outwash plains made of layered sands mixed with gravel. Pseudopodsolic soils can be found on the hills, in the valleys and upland depressions – black earths, in gullies can be found peat, marshy soil and muck and mineral soil, covered by grasslands. In the valley of the River Warta, some of the land is made of sandy alluvial soils. The soils in the Czerwonak gmina are acidic, the excessive acidity largely resulting from the natural climate and soil-related factors.


Natural aggregate deposits such as sand and gravel have been documented. The deposits are no longer exploited and occur in Owińska and Owińska I. The land has since undergone reclamation by forming water reservoirs, such as Złotoryjsko Południe, in which exploitation stopped in 1994, and Złotoryjsko, which includes land in the villages of Promnice and Bolechowo, and which is still exploited to some extent. Peat and gytta has been found in the area of Mielno although not yet exploited, while the clays of Poznań do not show much promise as a raw material for construction ceramics. The gmina has been poorly surveyed in terms of the occurrence and quality of mineral deposits. Peat deposits were found and documented in the valley of the Główna River as well as deposits of sand suitable for concrete and construction coatings.




The Czerwonak gmina is a territory with a relatively low amount of surface waters, constituting only 2.1% of the area. The River Warta plays a key role in this respect, with an average depth ranging from 1.5 to 4.1 m and some 15 km of the river being within the area of the gmina. The gmina lies in three main basins: Potok Kiciński, Strugi Goślińskiej and Struga Owińska. There are numerous small watercourses and depressions with swampy land or peat. The following streams are found in the area: Koziegłowski, Kiciński of Czerwonak, Leśny, Miękowski, Owiński, and Bolechowski – throughout most of the year the flow of water is small and they often become overgrown.


There are no major natural bodies of water in the gmina. The only exception is the overgrowing Bolechowskie Lake with its total area of 8.62 ha (as of 2004), length 420 m and width 260 m, and meeting the requirements of the Ministry of Health for bathing sites. There is a storage reservoir in the northern part of the gmina, in Trzaskowo (14 ha), a gravel pit reservoir in Promnice, and in the south the gravel pit reservoirs in Owińska and the fish ponds in Struga Owińska. Fish ponds can also be found in Rów "K" Zdroje, Potok Kiciński and Rów Miękówko. There is little underground water. 100% of renewable resources are utilized and there are no larger reserves.




The gmina of Czerwonak is situated in the Central Wielkopolska climatic region. The thermal characteristics of the climate in this area are as follows: average annual temperature is 8°C, in the winter season (October-March) – 1.5-2°C, and in the summer season – 14.5-15°C. This reflects the average climatic variability characteristic for the whole of Poland. The nearest IMiGW (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) meteorological station representative for the entire gmina is in Przebędowo.


The average annual cloud cover ranges from 60 - 76%, and is the lowest is in May and the highest in December. There are 40 sunny days per year, and over 140 days with high cloud coverage. The climate in the region is influenced by flowing air masses: 52% maritime polar, 28% continental polar, 6% arctic and about 7% tropical. Winds from the west and south-west are dominant in the gmina. Western winds occur most frequently in the period from June to September and south-western winds in autumn and winter. East winds occur mainly in spring and north winds are rare in the season from April to July (ref. R. Domański and S. Kozarski). Average annual precipitation ranges from 500 to 550 mm. The growing season in the area lasts over 220 days.


The variability of the terrain and proximity to the River Warta diversify the local climatic conditions. The influence of large concave forms and water surfaces is particularly evident; there are large differences between areas of different slope exposure and areas covered by vegetation. Areas with specific microclimates are present in the gmina:

- Zielonka Forest – forest climate
- Koziegłowy and Czerwonak – urban climate
- Owińska, Mielno and Kicin – field climate




Owing to the large tracts of woodland, the stock of game is very high. Most of the species common in the Polish lowlands have been found here. Many species of deer are present, including roe deer, red deer, and fallow deer. Among the larger mammals are wild boars, while the smaller mammals are represented by: brown hare, rabbit, marten, shrew, hedgehog and squirrel. Among reptiles, three protected species have been found: sand lizard, slow worm and grass snake. Among the amphibians are the fire-bellied toad, European toad, common frog and newt, as well as other species. These areas are a breeding refuge for birds, and among the 140 species present here the following can be seen: white stork, mute swan, lapwing, penduline tit, nightingale, duck, geese, various woodpeckers, birds of prey such as white-tailed eagle, spotted eagle, osprey and protected ravens, cranes, black storks and red kites. In the fields, partridge and pheasant can be found.





Czerwiec polski






The Czerwonak gmina is situated in a territory described as: mixed coniferous and oak-hornbeam forests specific for the area of Wielkopolska and Kujawy. Forest coverage of the area is about 42%. The gmina lies on part of the Zielonka Forest, the largest natural forest complex in central Wielkopolska, with considerable natural, scenic, historical and educational values. The rare plant species found here include: service tree, martagon lily, common columbine, mezereon, round-leaved sundew, great sundew, sawtooth sedge, and in particular, the nine-leaved toothwort – a mountain plant which here has its most northerly position. The main species of forest stands is the scots pine – 83%.


Pursuant to the Order of the Governor of Poznan of 20 September 1993, the Zielonka Forest Landscape Park was created. Following an adjustment carried out in 2003, the area of the park is 11,439.40 hectares, of which more than 80% are forest areas. According to the administrative division, the Zielonka Forest Landscape Park covers the area of five gminas (in three different counties). The Czerwonak gmina is located in the south, and the gmina of Murowana Goślina in the west (both are in Poznań county), while the north side is located in the gmina of Skoki (Wągrowiec county). The north-eastern part is located in the Kiszkowo gmina (Gniezno county), and the eastern part in the Pobiedziska gmina (Poznań county).




Area of the Zielonka Forest Landscape Park in particular gminas located within its boundaries


Area of the Park
within the gmina

Area of the Park
within the gmina

Area of the Park

Murowana Goslina
(17 208 ha)




Skoki (19 852 ha)




Kiszkowo (11.458 ha)




Pobiedziska (18 927 ha)




Czerwonak (8 224 ha)








* area of the gmina in brackets





The following nature reserves were created in the Park:

- Klasztorne Modrzewie ("Monastic Larches") nature reserve near Dąbrówka Kościelna
Area – ​​6.39 ha, created in 1962, with the oldest (at almost 200 years) larch and pine forest in Wielkopolska, mixed with oak, beech, birch and the artificially introduced Douglas fir.

- Las Mieszany ("Mixed Forest") nature reserve in the Łopuchówko forest district
Area – 10.83 ha, created in 1962, protecting a nearly 200-year-old oak and pine forest stand, mixed with younger beech and hornbeam with rich vegetation and undergrowth.
Żywiec Dziewięciolistny ("Nine-Leaved Toothwort") nature reserve
Area – 10.51 ha, created in 1974, with oak-hornbeam forest and riverside meadows, with a relic position for the nine-leaved toothwort.

- Jezioro Czarne ("Black Lake") nature reserve
Area – 17.75 ha, created in 1959, includes an overgrowing lake and the neighbouring transitional moor situated in a deep glacial trough, and a fragment of forest on the eastern side of the lake.

- Jezioro Pławno ("Pławno Lake") nature reserve
Area – 16.71 ha, created in 1978, includes the Pławno and Głęboczek lakes, the peat land situated between them, and the surrounding alder and birch forest.


Other noteworthy places outside the Park are:

Śnieżycowy Jar ("Spring Snowflake Ravine") reserve
Area – 4.21 ha, created in 1975 in order to protect a plant called the spring snowflake.
Buczyna ("Beech Forest") reserve
Area – 15.61 ha, created in 1958 in order to protect a 130-150-year-old beech forest mixed with oak, alder, hornbeam, birch and pine trees.


Also, the Maruszka Grove is worth mentioning – it is the most valuable part of the Park in terms of natural characteristics, covering an area of approximately 500 ha, situated between Pławno and Ludwikowo. There is a pine-oak forest mixed with hornbeam, beech, birch, alder, spruce, ash, maple, linden and maple, aged between 110 and 150 years. This forest, which has not been altered in the past, is similar to the forests growing here in previous centuries. The most magnificent tree in the grove is a monumental beech with a trunk circumference of 440 cm.




The green areas of the gmina are enriched by the local historic parks: a park with a hornbeam avenue in Bolechowo, a park with magnificent indigenous oaks in Trzaskowo and three parks near Owińska:

- the first stretches to the east and south of the Cistercian monastery. Two 66-metre long avenues of thick hornbeams remain. Some linden and chestnut trees have also reached large sizes;

- the second is adjacent to the von Treskow manor house. Beautiful old oak, ash, elm and white poplar trees grow here;

- the third is located on Kolejowa Street. Plane trees with circumferences of: 320, 320, and 370 cm grow here, and there is a linden alley parallel to the street.

Also worthy of mention is the renowned Bartek Oak in Owińska – this is a natural monument, with a circumference of 770 cm. According to legend, King Wladyslaw Jagiello ordered this tree be planted to commemorate the conversion of Lithuania and the victory over the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald. Today, Bartek is over 600 years old. The tree was admired by Emperor Napoleon himself in 1806, while he was passing through Owińska.



There are also areas of protected landscape in the Czerwonak gmina:

- Annowo meadows
Located in the eastern parts of the villages of Annowo and Miękowo, covering an area of 315.9 ha.

- Kliny-Mielno agricultural landscapes
Areas situated in the villages of Kicin and Kliny, covering 511.72 ha.

- Trzaskowskie fields
Areas situated in the village of Trzaskowo and in the northern parts of the village of Owińska, covering 451.04 ha.


Owing to its topographic diversity and interesting wildlife, the gmina of Czerwonak is a place with high natural and educational value, well-suited to hiking and cycling trips.



Materials used in this article:


1. Materials of the Zielonka Forest Inter-communal Association.

2. Paweł Anders: "Puszcza Zielonka", 2004.

3. Architectural and Urban Design Studio, arch. Maria Jurczyszyn: "Zmiana studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego Gminy Czerwonak”  (Change in the Study of Conditions and Directions of Spatial Management of the Czerwonak Gmina), 2010.

4. Eko Profil: "Prognoza oddziaływania na środowisko Programu Ochrony Środowiska dla Gminy Czerwonak na lata 2009-2012 z perspektywą na lata 2013-2016”,  (Forecast of Environmental Impact for the Environmental Protection Program of the Czerwonak Gmina for 2009-2012, with an outlook to the years 2013-2016), 2010.